Understanding the dynamics of an Active Shooter event is key when preparing for this all to common violent criminal action. Knowing what to look for in the event you find yourself in one of these events could give you the advantage and the ability to run, hide, or FIGHT! – Chris

Originally posted here.

Written by Greg Ellifritz

*I originally wrote this article about four years ago.  I updated it after reading Ron Borcsh’s excellent chapter on active killers in the book “Straight Talk On Armed Defense.”  Ron’s research alerted me to several previously unknown active killer cases where the shooters had malfunctions.  I did some more research in addition to Ron’s excellent work and came up with a more complete list of historic active killer events where the killer had a malfunction or an empty weapon at some point.  I have at least 27 documented shootings where this has happened.

It’s a situation we all should be watching for.  It happens in quite a few spree shootings.  If you are alert, you can use these moments to escape or attack. — Greg

I was recently doing some research on historic active shooter incidents and found these articles about an election night shooting in Canada.  This shooting didn’t get much media traction in the USA, but it was an interesting case.  Read more about it at the link below:


Gun jams on active shooter in Montreal


The shooter was allegedly mentally ill and upset at the increasing levels of government bureaucracy affecting his business.  He began to shoot up a politician’s victory celebration at a public club.  He fired several rounds from an “assault rifle” before his gun jammed and he was apprehended.  An official police statement described the events:


“In fact there could have been many more injuries and possibly more fatalities — the reason for that is that the man had an assault rifle…and we’re hearing from witnesses the gun appeared to have jammed after only a few rounds were fired,”

Jamming weapons are not uncommon in active shooter events.  In fact, another spree shooting with much more media coverage (the movie theater shooting in Aurora, Colorado) had a similar ending…


Jammed Gun Saved Lives In Colo. Shooting


A federal law enforcement official told the Washington Post that a weapon malfunction likely saved lives by forcing Holmes to abandon the M&P15 he had equipped with a 100-round drum magazine after it jammed.”


Note that both of these shooters had weapon malfunctions.  Both also had additional firearms in their possession.


Even more recently, victims took the opportunity to flee after the terrorists’ guns jammed in last year’s terrorist attack in Paris.


Weapon malfunctions give victims time to escape.  They also provide opportunities for unarmed victims to violently resist the killer with less danger.  Similar opportunities are presented when shooters reload their empty weapons as well.  In looking at past active shooter events, it is exceedingly rare to find one where the killer didn’t have either a malfunctioning or empty weapon at some point in the engagement.


Take a look at some of the active shooter events in recent history.  The shooter had a malfunctioning or empty gun in every one…


1988- Atlantic Shores Christian School.  Shooter subdued by a teacher after his gun jammed.  He had hundreds more rounds on his person.

1999- Columbine High School- Two shooters reloaded several times each

1999- Fort Gibson Middle School- Shot until his 9mm pistol was empty.  At that point he was taken down by a teacher and school safety officer.

2004- Al Rosa Villa Concert shooting– Killer had a malfunction with his Beretta 92 handgun

2007- Virginia Tech. Shooter reloaded several times

2007- NY/NY Casino in Las Vegas- Gunman tackled by bystander while attempting to reload his pistol.  Suspect had more than 100 additional rounds on his person.

2009- NVCC Woodbridge College. Shooter’s gun jammed after 2 rounds

2009- Bridgeville fitness club.  Shooter reloaded at least twice

2009- Fort Hood Army Base.  Terrorist reloaded several times and had a pistol malfunction

2009- First Baptist Church Maryville, Illinois- Shooter’s .45 pistol jammed after he fired four shots.  The suspect continued his attack with a knife.

2010- University of Alabama Faculty meeting.  Shooter’s gun jammed and she was locked in a closet by coworkers until police arrived.

2010- Deer Creek Middle School Littleton, Colorado- Teacher tackled the adult male suspect as he reloaded his rifle

2011- Tucson Shooting.  Shooter had to reload and had a jammed gun at one point.  He was tackled as he fumbled an additional reload and was trying to pick his dropped magazine off the ground

2011- Norway shooting.  Multiple reloads

2012- Chardon High School, Ohio.  Shooter fired 10 rounds with .22 pistol and then ran out of ammunition

2012- Oikos College.  Shooter reloaded several times.

2012- Clackamas Mall in Portland, Oregon- Suspect fired 17 rounds and attempted to reload his AR-15 rifle, but was unable to do so.

2012- California Chicken Plant shooting– Killer fired until his pistol was empty.

2013- Sandy Hook Elementary School– Reloads and live rounds on ground indicative of malfunctions

2013- Ross Twp Pennsylvania Municipal Building- Shooter fired 28 rounds out of a Ruger Mini-14 and ran it dry.  He transitioned to a .44 magnum revolver and continued his attack.

2014- Pacific University in Seattle, Washington– Student safety monitor stopped the shooter by spraying him with pepper spray as he reloaded his double barrel shotgun.  Suspect tried to continue his attack with a knife while being restrained.

2014- Marysville-Pilchuck High School in Washington State- Teacher confronted student as he was reloading, prompting the student to shoot himself.

2014- Second Ft. Hood Shooting– Multiple reloads of a S&W .45 automatic pistol

2015- Charlie Hebdo Shooting in Paris– Multiple reloads.  Live 7.62x39mm rounds on the street indicate possible malfunctions.

2015 – Thalys France Train Shooting- Islamic terrorist fired on train passengers until his rifle jammed.  At that point he was tackeled and choked out by three traveling Americans.  The shooter was also armed with a 9mm handgun and a box cutter.  He transitioned to the box cutter when his rifle jammed and slashed several people.

2016- Kansas Lawnmower Plant– Shooter fired weapon until he was out of ammunition.

2016- Orlando Pulse Night Club– Killer reloaded multiple times.


There are likely many more occasions when an active shooter’s weapon jammed or ran out of ammunition.


Knowing that active killers often end up with jammed or empty guns really doesn’t affect the response priorities of armed individuals.  If you are armed and within range of an active shooter, your safest course of action will be to shoot the killer as quickly as possible.


If you are unarmed, things get a little more tricky.  Rushing a shooter with a fully functional firearm may or may not be successful.  Seeking cover and waiting for a better resistance (or flight) opportunity when the shooter’s gun stops working is a much safer strategy.  Knowing how to recognize and unloaded or malfunctioning gun is key.

Most shooters will understand what an empty or malfunctioning gun looks like.  If you are reading this article and you don’t know how to tell if a gun is jammed or malfunctioning, have a friend who owns guns show you what it looks like.  Such knowledge may one day save your life.

Even more importantly, do your children know how to identify jammed or empty guns?  They need that information as well.  Take the time to discuss some response options with your children if they are old enough to understand.  Stress rapid action, either by attacking or escaping, as soon as they notice that an active shooter has a jammed or empty gun.

Making your move when the shooter’s weapon is empty or jammed makes good tactical sense.  Two cautions are in order, however…..


Don’t wait until it’s too late.  Use this strategy only when you have cover or are hidden from the shooter.  If the shooter has you in his sights and is firing, act.  Don’t wait.


Many active shooters  carry more than one weapon.  Be prepared to deal with the shooter attempting to access a backup gun or knife as you attack.  Don’t let your guard down until you are sure the fight is over.

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